Development and Management of Information Systems
Information system is a core aspect of organizational management that enhances effective delivery of services with and without the organizational business precinct. Indeed, it encompasses several disciplines including system analysis and design, computer networking as well as database management. As a matter of fact, efficient information system is an important procedural aspect of most business organizations. In the light of the above, information management basically refers to the framework of organizational management that focuses on problem solving regarding both practical and theoretical problems. In particular, it deals with collection and subsequent analysis of information within the context of business executive area. These areas may encompass business productivity instruments, programming applications as well as implementation (Martin, 1995).
Ideally, information systems form a bridge between the business and the world of computer science via the foundation of theoretical information as well as computation. Indeed, the latter combination is essential for enhancing various business models in the computer science discipline. Indeed, any information system focuses on supporting decision making processes, operations as well as overall management’s activities. As a matter of fact, information system refers to a broad case scenario of multi-disciplined activities, within which people use information technology for enhancing business processes. Consequently, this paper will also use a case analysis of an existing information system (Martin, 1995). In particular, this study focuses mainly on the impacts of information system development on human resource and marketing of an organization.
Developing Organizational Information System
Organizational Information System Development in large organizations is leveraged by the department of information technology of an organization. Furthermore, the department is also charged with the responsibility of enhancing the applications of technology as well as its subsequent manipulation in the context of operations in an organization. Various approaches can be employed in developing concrete information system in an organization. For instance, engineering-based approaches have been employed in the contemporary IS development. In particular, System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is frequently used for enhancing IS development (Pearlson & Saunders, 2009).
In particular, this approach involves systematic procedures useful for the development of the system through sequential stages. Additionally, an information system can either be developed within an organization or outsourced. Essentially, the outsourcing of system development procedures involves outsourcing particular components or even the whole system. A case example is the off-shoring of global information system which is a product of development team towards geographical distributions. Besides, other cases such as the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Disaster Information Systems are subject to modern innovations, which can be classified generally as Spatial Information Systems. The development of an information system is undertaken through a series of stages such as the following: recognition of a problem followed by specification; gathering of data; system design and construction; implementation of the system and finally a subsequent review and maintenance following a complete network of an intertwined chain of operations (Pearlson & Saunders, 2009).
One of the latest contemporary models of information system is the computer-based system. As a matter of fact, this system employs computer technology in undertaking certain discrete computer commands regarding its planned tasks. Computer-based information system model comprises of a number of essentials, which include databases, software, networks, hardware as well as procedures. Basically, hardware refers to devices such as processors, keyboard and the monitor, to which operations are synchronized to realize important functions. Databases refer to operations regarding the act of gathering complementary files, which contain similar or related information overall. On the other hand, networks refer to the systems involved in connections, which allow a collection of computers to distribute resources over a wide scope of geographical locations. Similarly, procedures refer to computer-generated commands used in combining all the computer hardware and software with a view to the processing of information and subsequent production of the preferred outputs (Pearlson & Saunders, 2009).
Indeed, the combination of hardware, network software and the database together forms the system called information technology platform. Indeed, the technical personnel of an information technology can therefore use such components in the creation of an information system, which can manipulate certain commands such as over watching risks, safety measures as well as data management aspects, commonly known as information technology aspects.
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Some organizations have small information system only sufficient to serve sections of the organizations while others comprise of big information systems that support operations of the whole organization. Indeed, every sub-section of an organization comprises of a distinct collection of procedural arrangements with respect to programs and applications; it forms the basis of an information system. These segments are commonly called the Functional Area Information System (FAIS) which acts as a supporting pillar for general cases of information systems such as business intelligence among others. However, Functional Area Information System (FAIS) supports particular functions within an organization. These areas may include Production or Operation Management (POM). In the context of business finance, management often uses the indiscriminate information systems in forecasting revenues and subsequent overall business activities in order to determine the best origins and fund uses. Indeed, these actions are aimed at performing audits with a view to ensuring the soundness of an organization as far as its financial management aspects are concerned. Furthermore, the system also ensures that all financial reports and documents are accurately documented (Gray, King, McLean, & Watson, 1989).
Through proficient information technology systems, organizations are able to manipulate their human resource outputs with regard to efficiency and proficient information sharing. Consequently, this promotes the overall functioning of the organization and subsequent development of multidisciplinary performance techniques guided by technological interventions which foster overall business performance. Essentially, an efficient management system is essential in determining the success of a business particularly due to reduction of bureaucratic limits that would hamper major business operations. In exploring this topic, the study below uses three distinct case scenarios of enhanced information system models that have spearheaded organizational growth worldwide (Statt & Statt, 2004).
Management of Information Systems
Information Management is pivotal for the smooth operation of an organization. Indeed, it forms the basis for business success. Consequently, any organization that seeks to excel in both production and marketing must adopt proactive management prospects of its internal operations, which further influence the external operations and customers’ behavior. In particular, information system management is essential for customer relationship management (CRM), which is critical to the development of an organization as discussed below. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) basically refers to a system used for managing the interactions between a company and its current and future clients. This process involves different variables such as technology, automation and subsequent synchronization of the company’s sales, customer services as well as providing technical support to the customer base. Customer Relationship Management process tracks and measures the levels of marketing campaigns through an extensive network. CRM systems may also track customer analysis through customer clicks as well as sales. Indeed, CRM systems could be used in call centers, social media, direct mails, customer interviews as well as banking (Shell, 2003).
Essentially, CRM via integrated information system model forms extensive customer relationship management basis. Indeed, it forms a platform for propelling payments among other questions related to management. The main idea behind the latter is to track, store and record information in a manner that promotes customer relations. Indeed, the process also codifies mutual interactions between the business and the customers with a view to maximizing the gross organizational sales as well as profits using analytical prompts. This move ensures that users are accorded as much information regarding the organizational products and services as possible with the intentions of identifying the market segment. Furthermore, CRM information reach and maximization enhance the maximization of customer service and subsequently maximizes the profit margins. Furthermore, the storage and manipulation of extensive information concerning the customers minimizes idle contact as well as futile interaction with among customers within the business (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004).
Indeed, for CRM to be used in the business development, the call centers are equipped with CRM software, which helps in directing customers to their respective agents besides proving self-empowered knowledge. The software may also be employed in identifying as well as subsequently rewarding loyal clients over a given time frame. A CRM software program may also be automated to provide synchronized suitable appointments with respect to time dates as well as generating regarded modes of customers’ contact with the organizational personnel. Indeed, once the management has prepared the appointments and saved them in the system, the automated system calendar can recall such appointments and establish the right time for their discharge (Whitman & Mattord, 2010).
Modern business environment allows for the business interaction with other businesses to be manipulated through the web. As Sweeney asserts, CRM involves any method or actions including procedures for managing and improving sales as well as subsequent customers and other business partners across the scope of the business enterprise. Consequently, Sweeney provides that such management is essential in every aspect of B22 transactions. In most cases, customer information systems modeling are taken to have the impression that they were created for the sake of customer-centered businesses. However, management techniques could also be applied in B2B cases with a view to streamlining and improving the overall conditions for customer management. However, the CRM focusing on B2B and B2C scenarios are created differently since they are destined for achieving different tasks but later converge to customer relations improvement. Indeed, B2B relationships generally have a relatively longer maturity period compared to their B2C relationship counterparts. Personalization and individual employment of CRM operations could be essential in promoting B2B relationships.
As a matter of fact, any effective CRM have the following features: customer orientation; automated sales force; active use of technology in enhancing efficiency of the process as well as managing opportunities effectively. With respect to the quality of opportunity management, this characteristics enable any company to cope with the volatile growth as well as demands besides implementing sustainable forecasting models with a view to integrating history of sales with the respective sales projection. Indeed, computer-based information system is essential for using technology oriented on the optimization of business processes through automation, synchronization as well as organization of business operations. The process of optimization basically involves activities pertaining to business sales, though they may also incorporate elated customer services, technical support and marketing (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004).
The main objective of Customer Relationship Management pertains to the discovery, engagement and subsequent signing on new customers besides maintaining concrete relationships with the already established customer basis in the business. Furthermore, the prospects of Customer Relationship Management may also comprise other mechanisms that promote reconciliation and subsequent restoration of broken customer relationships with past business customers. As a matter of fact, the inputs of Customer Relationship Management may also be essential for minimizing the costs of marketing and customer service delivery. It is therefore implemented at business level with the involvement of all business departments relating to customers. Active implementation of Customer Relationship Management characterized with consistency between inputs of technology, profit maximizing processes as well as personnel lead to achieving business objectives while reducing overall costs of business management (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004).
Effective implementation of CRM may help a company in achieving high productive capacity while streamlining both sales and marketing processes. Furthermore, it may lead to an improved mode of service delivery. Additionally, customers’ loyalty also increases in both up and cross selling prospects thus increasing the business efficiency among all business call centers. CRM also promotes the move to cost reduction and enhanced profiling and targeting profits in business operations. A concrete model of information system may also promote business market shares as well as reduce marginal costs of production (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004).
Despite having numerous benefits, Customer Relationship Management is not used by most companies in promoting sales, service delivery and marketing in general. Indeed, there are numerous barriers to effective implementation of proactive customer relationship management. For instance, there are several complexities involved in implementing work flows as well as tools especially in the case of large corporations due to bureaucratic issues. Previously, the latter tools have been employed in recording, contact management, tracking communication as well as interactions. Nevertheless, software solutions through enhanced Information System Model of management have been incorporated in restructuring the sales pipelines with the inducement of certain tools towards promoting business activities pertaining to clients’ relations. Consequently, these advancements have led to the individualization of customer relations to the confinement of each department. However, Customer Relationship Management can be very essential in promoting business performance in the long-run (Chaffey & Wood, 2005).
Integrated Human Resource Development
Human resource sector is an important stronghold, upon which the economy of any given country underpins. The role of this sector is to unveil human capital necessary for the exploitation of the pre-existing natural resources with a view to realize economic goals and objectives. In essence, the information system management and control of the natural resources as well as the mutual capacity building towards the realization of a fully developed economic sector is a key initiative that human resource personnel is charged with. In particular, the analysis of this paper takes a sharp focus on the human resource pattern, implication and information system management platform of an organization with a diverse interference from other regions, which manifest a similar workforce information system management strategy (Place & Hyslop, 1982).
An organization’s taskforce is highly emphasized by both the private and federal agencies. Indeed, the authorities believe that the retention of high performing workforce is quite essential for the maintenance of a competitive advantage of a firm. Essentially, the latter is critical since it may improve human capital improvement through enhanced employees’ engagement information systems. As a matter of fact, these also act as strategic mechanisms particularly undertaken by multi-national corporations. Indeed, the system also promotes employees’ management through the incubation and development of essential talents and individual productive capacity of the employees. In particular, this is peculiar to one of the agencies that are responsible for the HR development is the Sopra group of Companies. The effective information system management of HR is an important tool for the optimization of talent information system management through the fateful achievement of both short and medium-term measures (Bocij, Chaffey, Hickie, & Greasley, 2006).
Sopra is an agency responsible for the access of the human resource capita in the local premises. In line with this, the human resource information system management solution is based on a HR Suite Seven’s Cross-functional information system management of talents. The model is an important pillar, upon which simultaneous information system management of HR units can be effectively executed, namely: compensation, internal and external trainees, training, and information system management of skills as well as recruitment of requisitions. In essence, the simultaneous HR information system management helps in analyzing the employees’ aspirations and drives and the fateful alignment of employees’ skills with the respective company’s key competencies. Besides that, careful mutual information system management of the HR is important for the optimization of career planning and identification of high performing manpower (Chaffey & Wood, 2005).
As a result of key human resource agencies and quality watch dogs in Belgium, the country has continued to experience a high powered and sound human resource bodies; that is mainly a cognitive aspect of the overall sector performance. As a matter of fact, an organization embarks on rights information system management through the experts accruing to both career and talent management. The result is an improved span of assessment of talents, effectiveness of organizations, transitions of workforce, leader development as well as the organization’s workforce outplacement (Ross, 1970).
In the organizations in other parts of Europe, there has been a series of problems particularly with the information system management of the health workforce. This has necessitated the review and regeneration of new approaches towards the health policies as far as the workers are concerned. Indeed, the workforce in Europe has been facing a series of problems ranging from technological advancements to change in demographic features. Furthermore, there has been a repeated cut of budgetary allocations and pressures of workforce aggregate costs. Despite the alarming rate of the increased need to improve the workforce at the national and international levels with the intervention of a series of supranational agencies such as OECD and WHO, the problem has continued to spur a widespread need for improvement. The EU policies such as the directive on working time (2003/88/EC) have also been subjected to a series of revision strategies to reiterate on the measures that would be put in place to raise the overall economic HR performance. Consequently, this shows that the workforce information system management is a function of policies and other multiple subjects that spur changes in approach and management. Good workforce information system management policies promote the output per capita of the individual workers through mutual development (Beynon-Davies, Galliers, & Sauer, 2009).
According to the Business competitive strategy research conducted in the University of Wisconsin, 1997, it is also noted that more than 75 per cent of the employees recruited by any organization involve replacement of employees who leave an organization for some other in search of better terms. These activities are automated to perform exemplarily in modern business set-ups through advanced information systems. Indeed, this aspect of migration may result in the loss of well trained and skillful employees and therefore a decline in the production of the firm owing to the lack of skilled manpower. To minimize this, the organization human resource task force aimed at maximizing the organizational fabrication also aims at retaining high performing employees in order to maximize the output level while at the same time minimize the aggregate costs on time to time recruitment. This, however, indicates a serious obstruction to the organizational performance. New employees take time to understand new working environment. Consequently, good and competent human resource information system management in an organization translates to minimal shipment of human resource capital from one company to the other from time to time. On the other hand, the practice enhances workers’ retention capacity of the enterprise. High mobility of the human capital discourages production and increases the output generation within the institutional framework (Chaffey & Wood, 2005).
The business environment also plays a significant role in the establishment of a strong and formidable market scope, within which its product can be traded in. According to the value chain by Michael Porter, there are three basic tools that are popularly known to be relevant in the analysis of enhancing the production of commodities in an organization. Indeed, the company is a major manufacturer in the world automotive industry. The manufacturing activity of the company is divided into distinct categories of subsystems where each contributes to the final product as input, output or throughputs. In essence, the level of efficiency of the production activity that goes hand in hand with the value chain dictates the cost of production and therefore determines the profitability of the company. Consequently, the production activities are categorized into either primary or secondary levels. The secondary activities also include the production support services which rather make the actual production possible including the insurance and workers’ health. Finally, the following case describes the significant role played by information system and characterized by efficiency and output-orientation. It represents a global design store with an extensive Information System, which is pivotal in not only developing the internal structure of the business but also revamping its marketing strategies (Chaffey & Wood, 2005).
Information System (Case of FAB.COM)
As indicated earlier, information system involves a combination of software and hardware inputs. Furthermore, it encompasses the use of skilled personnel in the field with a view to facilitating planning and coordination of various operations of an organization. Indeed, the combination of information system and the manipulation by trained personnel promote the organizational decision making process. As a matter of fact, competent information system in an organization enables quick accessibility to resources that would be essential for organizational growth (Laudon & Laudon, 2002). Furthermore, proper networking across the organization is also enabled while at the same time promoting the interaction between the organization and its clients both locally and internationally positioned. Indeed, the case below represents the information system adopted in the business operations of the Fab.com which is a renowned global designer with an extensive market outlay globally enhanced by aggressive information system in place. Indeed, the case also focuses on three distinct levels of analysis: strategic, operational and organizational approaches.
Ideally, Fab.com is perhaps one of the biggest and fastest growing companies worldwide. Essentially, the growth and development of the company with respect to outputs and marketing outlay have been a firm contribution of the existing information systems in the company. However, in its operations, the company has had a number of challenges barring it from accessing and dominating certain markets. In particular, the company plunged into the market through an extensive market research, which enhanced panning, control as well as coordination of its business activities. On aggregate, these factors’ combination arose from integrated information systems of the organization. Essentially, FAB’s main objective lies in the capturing of a wide market via advances in technology and resource mobilization. The coordination of its activities bearing in mind the expanding market has been a subset of integrated information systems which have fostered the overall growth of the company. As a matter of fact, FAB has grown gradually to the current position via the diffusion of critical designs through a prior focus on the currency situation in the field with a view to maintaining a good customer rapport (Sundarraj & Sarkis, 2000).
Essentially, the company’s marketing and development strategies are based to a long-term focus on the market as far as the consumer patterns and normative trends that are also concerned. In the light of the above, the company has engaged an information system that allows concrete internal operations blended with a strategic plan guides on investments and resource allocation. This move enables the company to tap most proactive market opportunities with a view to expanding the business scope and strengthening the business model thereon. Consequently, this move ensures that most design models can be accessed by a wide range of novel consumers besides enhancing customer relationship with the current consumers (Sundarraj & Sarkis, 2000).
Additionally, the company also employs a wide range of personnel within the set up of its information systems. Indeed, the personnel is often involved in analyzing market situation attributable to marketing campaigns, predictive modeling as well as other associated segmentation among other analytical products, which focus on enhancing the core business of the company. Essentially, the latter forms a major role as perceived by the company’s analysts and perhaps the main framework of operations within the company. Consequently, through such an integrated information system, the company can identify the prevailing market trends, particularly in the highly dynamic design segments worldwide. Furthermore, it can also understand the role of empirical data in executing its business operations. Consequently, such a system enables the company to prepare extensive customer responses besides creating questions that would enable the company to develop new interventions concerning the expansion of the market share. In the case of FABs Corporation, the latter activities are executed by analysts through synthesis of raw data. Consequently, the outcomes are then passed on to the executive in terms of recommendations. As a result, the company then executes the recommendations for improving business operations both locally and internationally. The cognitive power of integrated information system synchronizes all the business activities that further enhance service delivery to its clients (Sundarraj & Sarkis, 2000).
Through proactive information systems in the company, it orders and manages inventory procurements activities and allocates most of the purchases at a clear and efficient purchase forum. Indeed, the latter activities are executed within the production and financial departments of the company through a systemic operational logistic crew with intensive information systems across all departments. In dominating the global design market, the company’s operational market plays a pivotal role. The success is also pegged on the company’s formidable and result-driven personnel. Indeed, FABs has engaged a concrete information system through interconnected variables in its management. More personnel have also proved to be an absolute implication of technology driven production and marketing processes. As a matter of fact, the company also uses its highly experienced personnel in the purchasing of inventories such as designers and shipping carriers. As a result, the company can constructively capture the targeted market via integrated public relation exercises further consolidated by internal staff integration (Sundarraj & Sarkis, 2000).
Similarly, a strong and qualified inventory coordinator panel interconnected with the market and production segment of the company uses the system for coordinating and reporting discrepancies in designs besides providing advice on the company’s operational intervention such as cycle counts and inspection of inventories. The operation coordinator of FABs also focuses on the entire life cycle with respect to the inventory purchases beginning with the first receipt to the range of phases in the company’s operations. Furthermore, the company’s operation coordinator also monitors the refined stock, analyzes the sales viability besides connecting to the company’s clients on final communication of balance as per the inventory. The company’s social relations are also highly fostered with its prospective consumers. Furthermore, the operation coordinator further traces open orders and finds out implications of customer arrays on business operations (Boone & Kurtz, 2012).
In order to revamp the company’s prospects to customers’ satisfaction as well as active designs within the supply chain, the company’s operation coordinator also has a stringent connection with the empirical operations of the company through frequent visits to warehouses and establishment of factual information concerning sales and customers’ behavior before suggesting methods of improving the company’s image. Furthermore, the active connections between the operation coordinator and the production line is essential for restructuring and improving the company’s physical infrastructure with a view to diversifying the output of the company while increasing consumer loyalty to FABs designs. Such concrete measures also enhance the company’s competitive advantages in the design industry worldwide. New interventions via coordinative procedures augment the company’s prospective change for enhanced business operations (Boone & Kurtz, 2012).
The organization of FAB’s operations and managerial activities are guided by both transparency and coherence. Consequently, the company also engages in tracking essential metrics of the business besides developing a straightforward decision-making model with respect to price of designs, which further optimizes the company’s aggregate sales. Besides, the company also engages in advanced research on its existing customer base and business driving variables as the main pricing strategic intervention. Besides, the FAB Corporation has consistently examined its market dynamics with a view to understanding the impact of market trends on its business operations. Such observations have been pivotal in enhancing its prospective pricing proposition. Furthermore, the integrated information system also enhances the development of strategic insights with a view to maintaining a competitive advantage achieved through the distinct pricing strategy. Indeed, the success of FABs within the market and production segment has been mainly derived from its focus on information technology integration into its information system. In particular, such technologies have been critical in executing its business budget, objectives as well as marketing strategies; it has a gross effect on enhancing group decisions (Boone & Kurtz, 2012).
In conclusion, the development of an institutional-based information system and subsequent integration of computer technology have been critical to the organizational development and overall success in business operations as far as market-based operations are concerned. As a matter of fact, an efficient information system is essential for enhancement of business activities in small, medium and large enterprises. In particular, the customer relations and satisfaction are paramount; a state that is easily achieved through intensively coordinated information system. However, as portrayed in the case of FABs, the development of an information system is important but the management of the system is more important due to the business operational impacts of the models. Ideally, every business with the prospects of expanding and reaching the international market must seek to re-invent its information systems besides integrating them with the contemporary advances in technology.