How would You Define the Term “Globalization”?
Globalization is the movement of a localized area towards a worldwide relation. The relation involves financial, economic, communication and trade integrations. Globalization opens up a localized economy to a globalized perspective of doing things. There is a free movement of people and goods in trade. There is an interaction with global cultural and macro-social factors, when globalization occurs. Globalization interrupts cultures and beliefs of a localized area, when it opens up to the world. There is also an improvement of the infrastructure and development of many sectors, including telecommunications because of the Internet that connects people. Globalization presents both positive and negative impacts on a country.
How it Affects Economically
There is an increase in the movement of goods, technology, capital and services across international borders. There is a development of the global market, which prompts a reconsideration of tariffs and other international trade regulations. There is an increase in competition, hence, an increase in the quality of the goods produced.
How it Affects Politically
There has been a development of international treaties, and the national states have transformed into sub-states or supra-states. This has resulted in the emergence of world superpowers that influence the global matters to a considerable degree. There has been a development of world organizations, such as the United Nations and the International Criminal Court, which continue to shape global politics.
How it Affects Culturally
The increase in globalization erodes cultures of certain people, who had existed in isolation. People are alienated from their indigenous cultures as they embrace the new global culture brought about by globalization. There is an increase in the diversity as people from different cultures interact to form a new culture. People embrace practices from different parts of the world.
Positive Trend in the World
There is the economic liberalization and growth. This has been enhanced by the development of the economic freedom and free trade. The economic liberalization and growth have increased investments and capital flows in the world. Many countries are investing in developing countries, which, in turn, increase their development. Another positive trend is the increased employment in the developing nations because of additional investments by developed countries. There is also the increased competition instigated by trade in similar goods from different countries. The competition results into an increase in the quality of the goods produced around the world. There is also the increased spread of technology, which improves the development of the economy.
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Negative Trend in the World
The negative impact of globalization is the increasing rate of unemployment in developed countries. Due to the open trade and capital integration in the world, many companies are outsourcing to the developing countries. It is cheaper for companies and, consequently, they reduce the workforce employed in their home countries. The integration of capital markets will only result in profitability to the owners of capital at the expense of the rest of the populace.
Stages of a Demographic Transition Model
- The first stage is the pre-transition stage, which is characterized by a high birth rate and a high death rate. This makes the population almost equal.
- The second stage is the mortality transition stage that is characterized by the high birth rate, but a decline in the death rate. There is an expansion in the population, and it grows.
- The third stage is the fertility transition stage that has a decreasing birth rate and a decreasing death rate. However, population still increases, because the birth rate is higher than the death rate.
- The fourth stage is the stability transition stage, where there is a low birth rate and a low death rate. The population remains high at a constant rate, because the birth rate and death rate are equal.
- The fertility rate is the most essential factor that influences the transition from one phase to the next.
Ecosystem goods and services are factors that affect the health and sustainability of populations in an ecosystem. These services and goods are divided into provisioning, regulating and cultural. Provisioning goods are food, fresh water, wood and fiber, fuel and fresh air. Regulating services are the climate regulation, food regulation, disease regulation and water purification. The cultural services include aesthetics, educational, recreational and spiritual services. When an ecosystem is well maintained, it will provide these goods and services for a long period.
The first graph shows an increased effect of natural factors on the climate that the computer modeled. The second graph shows that anthropogenic or manmade factors are regulated; therefore, their effect does not show a substantial difference with the projected one. A combination of the three graphs in the third graph shows that there is an increase in the effect of factors that are being observed than it was projected.
The natural factors are affected by factors on the earth, such as oceans, and external factors, such as the sun. The human factors that affect the climate change are the industrialization and deforestation. There is an increased industrialization in this century as compared to previous centuries. This is at a higher rate that it was projected. This is the reason the second and third graphs show a difference in the projected and actual changes.
What is the UN’s Millennium Project?
The Millennium Project is an initiative by the UN to ensure proper means for countries to achieve Millennium Development Goals. The goals are the eradication of poverty, disease, hunger, environmental degradation, discrimination and illiteracy. They aim at achieving this by setting up proper organizational means, proper financing structures and operational priorities.
They have managed to ensure the environmental sustainability through the eradication of environmental degradation. The policy they have managed to achieve is the integration of principles of the sustainable development into country policies and programs. This is a success story in Germany, where they are switching off their nuclear power plants and embracing the use of solar energy.