Born Criminal Theory
Biological Theory of Born Criminal
The ‘born criminal’ biological theory by Lombroso tries to explain that criminality is inherited. There is a gene in the brain that, through contact with certain environments, can lead to committing crimes. Psychoanalytic approach by Freud shows that criminal behavior emerges as a result of personality disturbance in one’s mind. The term ‘psychopath’ refers to aggressive criminals who act without reasoning. According to sociological theory, social class and differences in family contribute to criminality. In Strain/Anomie theory, Durkheim tries to explain that, in the course of fulfilling societal norms, which may be difficult to attain e.g., lack of income can lead to stealing or drug trafficking to meet basic needs. Biological, psychological and sociological reasons combined can result into criminal behavior; slum teens with parents abusing alcohol may engage in the same activity currently and in the future, for example.
The police are trained to protect the public by maintaining security and preventing crime. In certain circumstances, they are compelled to use force in the dispensation of their duties. The law requires the use of force in defense but not as an excuse to cause harm to another person. As far as the police are concerned, force is applied in cases of arrest resistance; the police may be compelled to execute force in order to arrest the suspect, e.g. robbers. In addition, force can be used when the person to be arrested is under the influence of alcohol, drugs and if the person is insane, or if the criminal has hostages or threatens other people’s lives. However, it should not be employed excessively to the extent of causing harm or even human deaths.
The two known cases where use of force was an issue include; when Rodney King was pursued by Los Angeles police in 1991, he was hit by batons which caused serious injuries especially breaking bones holding the eye. Another case is when police hit students of University of California with batons and spraying them with pepper spray when the engaged in non-violent activities in 1997. This left many with injuries and others suffered from asthma. These are but a few examples of use of force by police.
Reno, J. (1999). Use of force by police; overview of national and local data. Retrieved
The Topic Domestic Violence
Research helps determine whether justice has been effectively and efficiently administered at a court level, by the police and the correction centers like penitentiaries. The topic like domestic violence has been researched and has enabled justice to be determined in areas like family conflicts, drug abuse, sexual violence, child labor and murder. Research has enabled specialists to thoroughly analyze the root causes of domestic violence and other related crimes and has recommended several ways of reducing it: abstinence from drug abuse and undergoing rehabilitation, for example.
Blumstein, A., & Petersilia, J. (1994). 25 years of criminal justice research. The National Institute of Justice.
Organizations that enforce law can cultivate a positive culture through good leadership based on responsibility and inclusion of others, like gatekeepers, hubs and other staff, in decision making and in gathering problem-solving information. All these endeavors will be achieved by clearly understanding organizational mission, vision, objectives and goals. Without this, the organization culture may have a negative impact on its goal of law enforcement. For example, gatekeepers and subordinate staff are the best in sourcing information and evidence in any organization from the public.